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Reference 1 – Cross-cultural reference

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Citation in APA format (2 pts)

Houghton, S., Hunter, S. C., Rosenberg, M., Wood, L., Zadow, C., Martin, K.,

 

& Shilton, T. (2015). Virtually impossible: limiting Australian children

 

and adolescents daily screen based media use. BMC Public Health, 15(1),

 

1. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-15-5

 

Key findings (6 pts)

 

In 2-3 paragraphs, summarize the main findings in your source.

 

The use of screen based media use (SBMU) has seen a steady increase over the years. Research conducted by American, Australian, and Canadian Health departments have cited concerns on the increasing use of SBMU in children, more specifically children under the age of two. It is recommended by many health professionals that children limit their exposure to SBMU to two hour or less per day. However, today this is proving more challenging as SBMU is not just on television, it is a part of schools, afterschool activities, and at each child’s fingertips with the advancements in smartphones.

Healthcare experts warnings about SBMU have not been heeded. To the contrary, children today, even after the recommendations have been put out, are using SBMU more then ever. For example, over a ten-year period SBMU data was collected on children and the findings showed in increase in screen viewing of all types from 3 hours and 45 minutes to 4 hours and 30 minutes. Other studies from the USA, UK, and Canada, show a similar trend regarding SBMU and children. All three countries have conducted research targeting the percentage of children who accede the two-hour SBMU recommended threshold. In all three countries the research clearly showed that over 50 percent of the children studied regularly used some form of screen-based media more then the recommended two hours.

How do you know that this is a credible/scholarly source? (2 pts)

I retrieved this article from the UMUC Library database searching scholarly articles.  The authors and reference list is comprised of subject mater experts in a variety of fields related to this topic of discussion.

Reference 2 – Policy reference

Citation in APA format (2 pts)

Rowan, C. (2010). Unplug—Don’t drug: A critical look at the influence of

 

technology on child behavior with an alternative way of responding other

 

than evaluation and drugging. Ethical Human Psychology And Psychiatry:

 

An  International Journal Of Critical Inquiry, 12(1), 60-68.

 

doi:10.1891/1559-4343.12.1.60

 

Key findings (6 pts)

 

In 2-3 paragraphs, summarize the main findings in your source.

 

Technology use by children has led to alarming statistics showing obesity and psychiatric disorders on the rise. Today, children’s distractions or medical conditions related to technology use are misdiagnosed and subsequently these children are overly medicated. There are many factors that contribute to kids obesity and psychological issues, but the major contributing factors are less one-on-one time with parents doing outdoor activities, children are now inundated with technology on a daily basis, and are disconnecting with the world and human interaction. Science has shown, for proper development, children need approximately four hours of physical play to properly develop motor skills.

Today children in America are reported to spend more then eight hours a day using various technologies. These hours spent glued to a screen instead of physical activity leads to attention deficit disorder, sleep impairment, and potentially decreased academic performance. To counteract some of these issues, some physicians recommend balanced technology. The concept of balanced technology is rather simple, for every hour children spend indoors on a piece of technology, they in turn should spend an hour outside doing activities. This ensures a balance child who has a better chance a proper development.

How do you know that this is a credible/scholarly source? (2 pts)

I retrieved this article from the UMUC Library database searching scholarly articles.  The authors and reference list is comprised of subject mater experts in a variety of fields related to this topic of discussion. The Ethical Human Psychology and Psychiatry is a scholarly International Journal.

Reference 3

Citation in APA format (2 pts)

Nasongkhla, J. & Sujiva, S. (2015). Teacher competency development: Teaching with tablet technology through Classroom Innovative Action Research (CIAR) coaching process. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 174(1), 992-999. Retrieved from http://ac.els-cdn.com/S1877042815007752/1-s2.0-S1877042815007752-main.pdf?_tid=cca489de-cdd0-11e5-8170-00000aacb35e&acdnat=1454873417_09ed6a0ffafbddbb19ab55a4581b555b

 

 

Key findings (6 pts)

 

In 2-3 paragraphs, summarize the main findings in your source.

 

The policy article I will reference is also one that is also on the perspective from a different country. My intention is to show how, even though we should try to limit technology use among children, some counties have implemented it with success on a large scale for education.

Thailand’s government enacted a policy titled One Tablet Per Child. This program was developed on the basis that empowering the children with technological knowledge at an early age will better prepare them for the future. The program was implemented with many checks and balances to ensure student and teacher and student competencies were accounted for. Students and teachers performances were graded and tracked to see if any marked improvement was seen through implementation of the program.

500 thousand first grade students were given tablets when this program started as a learning tool for their daily classwork. After the rollout of the tablets a study began called Classroom Innovative Action Research focusing on teachers’ competencies assessment, students’ competencies assessment, students’ learning outcomes assessment, questionnaire for students ‘self report, questionnaire for parents, guidelines for classroom observation. From these assessments the students that were studied showed a vast improvement in learning outcomes, but tested low in student competency.

How do you know that this is a credible/scholarly source? (2 pts)

I retrieved this article from the UMUC Library database searching scholarly articles.  The authors and reference list is comprised of subject mater experts in a variety of fields related to this topic of discussion. Both authors are professors at the department of education in Bangkok, Thailand, which makes them subject matter experts with a non-bias opinion.

Reference 4

Citation in APA format (2 pts)

 

Paavonen, E. J., Pennonen, M., Roine, M., Valkonen, S., & Lahikainen, A.

 

R. (2006). TV exposure associated with sleep disturbances in 5- to 6-

 

year-old children. Journal Of Sleep Research, 15(2), 154-161.

 

doi:10.1111/j.1365-2869.2006.00525.x

 

Key findings (6 pts)

 

In 2-3 paragraphs, summarize the main findings in your source.

 

The purpose of this article is to show the correlation between technologies usage by children watching television and sleep disturbances. Findings from this article suggest exposure to media shortens sleep and also affects the type of sleep children get. Some of the problems associated with children watching media before bed isn’t the act of watching television, but the content of what they are viewing. Because children aren’t mature enough to understand the difference between fiction and non-fiction what they see on television has an effect on them in a way that it doesn’t affect adults.

Research was conducted measuring 34 items including times the TV was on; if children were awake during that time, and how much time the child was watching TV while on. Parents of the children were given a questionnaire asking questions about their child’s sleep patterns in relation to the TV that was viewed. The results from the research were clear. Families who viewed TV more often or for longer periods had children with high sleep problems. Sleep problems among children tested was also high when those children watched TV right before bed. More specifically, if the content of what was watched right before bed was geared more toward adults, like nightly news, the children suffered from limited sleep or sleep-wake disorders.

How do you know that this is a credible/scholarly source? (2 pts)

I retrieved this article from the UMUC Library database searching scholarly articles.  The authors and reference list is comprised of subject mater experts in a variety of fields related to this topic of discussion. This source is a sleep research journal with references from many scholarly authors.

Reference 5

Citation in APA format (2 pts)

Sebire, S., Jago, R., Gorely, T., Cillero, I.,  & Biddle, S. (2011). “If there

wasn’t the technology then I would probably be out everyday”: A

qualitative study of children’s strategies to reduce their screen viewing.

Preventive Medicine, 53(1), 303-308. Retrieved from: http://ac.els-

cdn.com/S0091743511003082/1-s2.0-S0091743511003082-

main.pdf?_tid=711b98da-ccfb-11e5-921b-

00000aacb360&acdnat=1454781781_012a7eebf80cc23e975fd0a1108d8ea7

 

Key findings (6 pts)

 

In 2-3 paragraphs, summarize the main findings in your source.

 

This article poses the idea that screen viewing (SV) among children can be reduced if children are empowered with developing ideas on how to limit SV use. Research was conducted with British children focused on SV, and ways to limit its use. The main idea discovered was SV rules imposed by adults were more susceptible to pushback by children. Children were allowed to develop ways to limit SV usage through peer led focus groups, which lead to many findings.

Three ideas were developed to reduce SV by the students. These ideas were, what SV could they go without the most, what time of day would be best to limit SV use, and what activities could they do to replace SV use. Once the students reduced SV use the majority of those studied showed a positive response toward the change.

The students mainly reduced their SV associated with computers and televisions. Students identified the times of before and after school as the times they could reduce SV, and instead replace that time with outdoor activities. Students also developed ideas on how to reward themselves for limiting SV use. These self-imposed rewards better accepted then previous SV limitations placed by parents like time limits and verbal demands. Ultimately the SV experiment found that self-discovery methods for reducing SV are promising, but further testing may be required to ensure accuracy.

How do you know that this is a credible/scholarly source? (2 pts)

I retrieved this article from the UMUC Library database searching scholarly articles.  The authors and reference list is comprised of subject mater experts in a variety of fields related to this topic of discussion. This source is a preventative medicine journal with references from many scholarly authors.

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