Phi 208 quiz (100% correct solution)

1. The conventional doctrine is endorsed by: (Points : 1)

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        Rachels.
      
  the American Medical Association.
      
  both a and b.
      
  neither a nor b.

 

Question 2.2. What moral theory does Jeremy Bentham (with whom Singer seems to agree) endorse? (Points : 1)

        Moral relativism
      
  Anarchism
      
  Utilitarianism
      
  Social Contract Theory

 

Question 3.3. In the video “Drones Are Not Ethical and Effective,” Jeremy Waldron argues that drones are not ethical because their use involves (Points : 1)

        total transparency and accountability
      
  the assurance that only combatants will be targeted
      
  the maintenance of a secret death list by government authorities
      
  all of the above

 

Question 4.4. What does Noddings say about women’s feelings about the death of the body? (Points : 1)

        Women, more than anyone, just want to know that the soul of their child has gone to heaven
      
  Women know the preciousness of the body because they create them and care for them
      
  Women are happy not to have to deal with the messiness of dead bodies
      
  Men tend to be more sensitive to the death of the body since they are the ones that have to risk their own lives in war

 

Question 5.5. If Midgley is correct, moral scepticism (Points : 1)

        Leads to inaction.
      
  Leads to crude opinions.
      
  Leads to immorality.
      
  Rejects all criticism.

 

Question 6.6. In what way would Hill’s notion of “self-acceptance” correspond to Aristotle’s conception of eudaimonia? (Points : 1)

        They both are inherently selfish and contrary to virtue.
      
  They both require the virtues of arrogance and pride.
      
  Neither has anything to do with ethics.
      
  They both involve acknowledging that we are the sorts of creatures we are.

 

Question 7.7. In The Emperor’s Club, what best describes the teacher’s (Kevin Kline) response to his student’s (Emile Hirsch) admission of cheating?  (Points : 1)

        He hugged him and thanked him for being honest.
      
  He threatened to turn him in and have him punished.
      
  He challenged him to regard virtue and character as more important than success alone.
      
  He reminded him that it is against school policy to cheat, and thus that he erred by breaking the school’s rules.

 

Question 8.8. Which of the following does Tom Regan say about the utilitarian approach to animal ethics? (Points : 1)

        It is inadequate because it does not give value to individuals but only to their feelings
      
  It is perfect because it does not allow for discrimination based upon morally irrelevant attributes like race or species
      
  It is wrong because it treats human suffering as more important than animal suffering
      
  It ignores everything that does not have enough ‘utility’ and therefore does not take into account important things that it does not consider ‘useful’

 

Question 9.9. A false promise, according to Kant, is: (Points : 1)

        something that I could never will to be universal law.
      
  something that I could will to be universal law only when it benefits the majority.
      
  something that I could will to be universal law only when it benefits me.
      
  something that I could will to be universal law only when it prevents a greater wrong.

 

Question 10.10. What does Tom Regan say about the cruelty/kindness approach to animal ethics? (Points : 1)

        The best way to explain animal ethics is in terms of our obligation to be kind and not cruel to animals
      
  It is inadequate because it is possible to do wrong while being kind, and it is possible to do wrong without being deliberately cruel
      
  It has no relevance to animal ethics because animals are cruel to each other
      
  You have to be cruel to be kind, in the right measure

 

Question 11.11. Kant explains that respect for a person is: (Points : 1)

        the recognition of the worth of the person’s potential contribution to society.
      
  dependent upon whether the person respects others.
      
  both A and B
      
  none of the above.

 

Question 12.12. In the video, “Drones Are Ethical and Effective,” Kenneth Anderson argues that the use of drones is ethical because (Points : 1)

        it provides a greater separation between the target and operator
      
  it allows us to maintain a list of high value targets
      
  it is more precise than other forms of weaponry
      
  none of the above

 

Question 13.13. Which one of these is not
a way of expressing Kant’s Categorical Imperative? (Points : 1)

        Act as if the maxim of your action were to become by your will a universal law.
      
  Act that you use humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of another, always at the same time as an end, never merely as a means.
      
  Act so that the maxim of your action ensures the satisfaction of your desires.
      
  None of the above.

 

Question 14.14. According to Tom Regan, which of the following should compel us to accept the equal rights of animals? (Points : 1)

        Sentiment – our feelings for the welfare of animals
      
  Law – legal regulations requiring us to respect the rights of animals
      
  Reason – this theory has the best reasons on its side
      
  Religion – the laws of God mandate human compassion

 

Question 15.15. Hill uses this technique in the middle of the article to examine ideas about the human’s place within nature: (Points : 1)

        He presents specific factual examples that demonstrate harm to the environment.
      
  He presents a fictional example of a perfect island.
      
  He asks the reader to imagine a specific world that contained inherent worth.
      
  He creates a dialogue between an environmentalist and anti-environmentalist.

 

Question 16.16. Aristotle regards passions and feelings like anger as: (Points : 1)

        a sign that one lacks rational control over one’s state of mind.
      
  always either an excess or a defect in one’s character.
      
  capable of excess, defect, or the intermediate state characteristic of virtue.
      
  Both (a) and (b).

 

Question 17.17. Midgley analyzes the position that each society is a separate culture with its own values. This position is known as (Points : 1)

        Moral relativism
      
  Moral isolationism
      
  Moral structuralism
      
  Moral voluntarism

 

Question 18.18. What, according to Tom Regan, is the contractarian approach to ethics? (Points : 1)

        The view that individuals have rights because of a set of rules that they agree to follow, as with agreeing to the terms of a contract
      
  The view that all animals have rights because of the agreements that we have made (or should make) with them
      
  The view that what is morally relevant is the pain and suffering that an animal endures when we mistreat it
      
  The view that all humans have equal rights independent of particular abilities

 

Question 19.19. Thomas Nagel argues that all rules of engagement should be governed by the utilitarian principle that (Points : 1)

        any means can be justified if it leads to a worthy end
      
  the greatest good can justify targeting noncombatants
      
  we are always justified in attacking the tyranny of the majority
      
  none of the above

 

Question 20.20. According to Thomas Nagel’s article, “War and Massacre,” the absolutist position that creates no problems of interpretation is (Points : 1)

        rule utilitarianism
      
  act utilitarianism
      
  pacifism
      
  humanitarian intervention

 

Question 21.21. Rachels claims that most actual cases of killing: (Points : 1)

        are morally worse than most actual cases of letting die.
      
  are morally the same most actual cases of letting die.
      
  are morally less bad than most actual cases of letting die.
      
  are morally required.

 

Question 22.22. Michael Walzer argues that in the unique world of war, both morality and authority are (Points : 1)

        radically contested
      
  established by rules of war
      
  established by neutral states
      
  none of the above

 

Question 23.23. According to Mill, utilitarian morality holds that: (Points : 1)

        If each individual strives to maximize their own happiness, the happiness of all will follow.
      
  Each individual is required to sacrifice their own individual happiness for the happiness of all.
      
  With the right social arrangements and education, individuals can come to associate their own individual happiness with the happiness of all.
      
  Neither the happiness of the individual nor the happiness of all is worth pursuing, since neither is attainable in this life.  

 

Question 24.24. Nagel argues that the atomic bomb attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki were just like what other kind of action, just on a larger scale? (Points : 1)

        Killing the wife and child of someone attacking you in order to distract him from his attack.
      
  Bombing a munitions factory and killing some of the civilian workers inside.
      
  Firing at an enemy soldier and hitting an innocent bystander with a stray bullet.
      
  Bombing a convoy of enemy soldiers. 

 

Question 25.25. According to the scene from The Bridge on the River Kwai, what is the ultimate reason Colonel Nicholson (Alec Guinness) insists that the soldiers work hard to build the best bridge possible: (Points : 1)

        Because even in captivity, they know that God is watching them.
      
  So that the British forces will be able to fight the Japanese more effectively.
      
  Because the better the bridge, the more benefit they will receive and less punishment they will endure from their captors.
      
  Because it is an expression of the strength and dignity of a soldier even in captivity.
 

 

Question 26.26. Which of the following makes it difficult to calculate the utility of an act (Points : 1)

        the time frame of the consequences
      
  disagreements about the meaning of pleasure or happiness
      
  determining what constitutes the greatest good
      
  all of the above

 

Question 27.27. Hill claims that a fruitful way to think about the badness of destroying the environment is: (Points : 1)

        To think about what kind of human would choose to destroy the earth.
      
  To appeal to theories about God and care for the earth.
      
  To examine people’s intuitions about whether it is right to harm the environment.
      
  To examine the rights that belong to the environment and act on the basis of those rights.

 

Question 28.28. Robinson describes magnanimity as the mean between the extremes of: (Points : 1)

        Vanity and vice
      
  Generosity and selfishness
      
  Generosity and greed
      
  Vanity and pusillanimity
      
  None of the above

 

Question 29.29. In the video “Sexism in the News Media 2012” some newscasters blame military women for this (Points : 1)

        being killed in combat
      
  being raped
      
  not being able to have children
      
  being war heroes

 

Question 30.30. Rachels concludes that: (Points : 1)

        active euthanasia is always worse than passive euthanasia.
      
  passive euthanasia is always worse than active euthanasia.
      
  active euthanasia is always morally permissible.
      
  none of the above.

 

Question 31.31. In Gilligan’s article, the example of Heinz involves which crime (Points : 1)

        theft
      
  murder
      
  arson
      
  racketeering

 

Question 32.32. Robinson suggests that the more closely one associates with one’s identity with a certain group, the more one will (Points : 1)

        Associate one’s honor with defying the honor of the group
      
  Associate one’s honor with that of the group
      
  Associate one’s honor with that of the enemy group
      
  Associate one’s honor with the honor of prudence
      
  None of the above

 

Question 33.33. Tom Regan discusses the concept of indirect duties. Having only indirect duties towards animals means (Points : 1)

        That we have a duty not to harm animals but only because of the harm it might do to humans
      
  That we have no duties regarding animals whatsoever
      
  That our duties towards animals are equal to our duties towards humans
      
  That we actually have greater duties to animals than to humans

 

Question 34.34. In Gilligan’s example, the child named Amy focuses on this aspect of the Heinz dilemma (Points : 1)

        the logical nature of the problem
      
  a utilitarian calculus that weighs the options
      
  Kohlberg’s theory of moral development
      
  the relationships involved in the dilemma

 

Question 35.35. According to Aristotle, we should begin ethical inquiry by specifying: (Points : 1)

        which things are intrinsically valuable.
      
  the ultimate aim of all that we do.
      
  what our fundamental duties are.
      
  what constraints on behavior it would be reasonable to agree to.

 

Question 36.36. According to Rachels, active euthanasia involves: (Points : 1)

        the intentional termination of one’s life by another person, to relieve pain and suffering.
      
  ceasing to use “extraordinary means” to prolong someone’s life.
      
  intentionally causing a patient’s death, against the patient’s wishes.
      
  the refusal to treat a patient to avoid incurring unnecessary costs.

 

Question 37.37. Hill would agree most with which of the following statements? (Points : 1)

        Plants have rights that grant them certain ethical merit.
      
  Plants should not be harmed because of their use value to humans.
      
  Plants do not have rights.
      
  Plants have the same rights as animals.

 

Question 38.38. The Ring of Gyges gave the shepherd who found it (Points : 1)

        Intelligence
      
  Invincibility
      
  Invisibility
      
  Wisdom

 

Question 39.39. What is palliative care? (Points : 1)

        Treatments that relieve suffering for people in life threatening situations that allow them to live their lives to the fullest.
      
  Treatments that are only provided in Canada.
      
  Treatments that heal people when they face life-threatening illnesses.
      
  Treatments that involve painful processes that help to kill cancer and other diseases.

 

Question 40.40. Michael Walzer argues that there is a radical distinction between war and civil life because  (Points : 1)

        war is an intensely collective and collectivizing experience
      
  the circumstances of war are intensely coercive in ways not found elsewhere in society
      
  war is a world of pervasive uncertainty
      
  all of the above

 

Question 41.41. What is Peter Singer’s point about performing vivisection on mentally disabled human infants? (Points : 1)

        That if we say that it would be wrong to perform experiments on such humans but not on non-humans then we are showing bias based upon species alone
      
  That a good speciesist would not perform experiments on any being
      
  That we should test upon mentally disabled human infants because the results would be more reliable than tests on animals
      
  That anyone who would consider testing on a human infant is a monster

 

Question 42.42. According to the videos, in which is it legal to commit assisted suicide? (Points : 1)

        Canada
      
  Mexico
      
  Germany
      
  Switzerland
 

 

Question 43.43. According to the video “Meet Your Meat”, which of the following is not
true of how animals are slaughtered on factory farms (Points : 1)

        They are driven in extreme weather conditions without food or water
      
  They are often still conscious while being slaughtered
      
  They are often roughly handled and severely injured by the time they make it to slaughter
      
  They are ensured every means of avoiding fear and stress during the slaughtering process.

 

Question 44.44. If the Ring of Gyges really existed, (Points : 1)

        Just people would use it for justice.
      
  Just people would not use it at all.
      
  Unjust people would use it differently than just people.
      
  Everyone would use it the same.

 

Question 45.45. Held uses this example to talk about the political distinctions that separate men and women in the realms of the public and the private (Points : 1)

        a business man going out for cocktails
      
  a mother nursing her child
      
  a city planner developing a building
      
  a mother homeschooling her children

 

Question 46.46. According to Thomas Hill’s account of environmental ethics, a person might show a lack of virtue when they: (Points : 1)

        fail to realize that human needs and interests are worthless and unimportant.
      
  fail find any aesthetic value in nature.
      
  fail to recognize the rights of nonsentient beings.
      
  All of the above. 

 

Question 47.47. Aristotle conceives of a virtue as: (Points : 1)

        a rule that tells you what the right action is.
      
  a state of character that enables practically wise choices.
      
  a positive self-image.
      
  a way to gain as much pleasure as possible.

 

Question 48.48. What happens to the offspring of dairy cows, according to the video “Meet Your Meat”? (Points : 1)

        They are taken away at a young age
      
  They stay with their mothers until a healthy age
      
  They are placed in animal sanctuaries
      
  They go to pasture to become breeders

 

Question 49.49. What is Tom Regan’s position about the use of animals in research and agriculture? (Points : 1)

        Animals should be used whenever it can be proven that the human benefits outweigh the harms caused to the animals
      
  Animals should never be used for medical research or commercial agriculture
      
  Animals should only be used for medical research shown to be beneficial to humanity, never for agriculture
      
  Animals should be used in both medical research and agriculture but should be treated as humanely as possible

 

Question 50.50. Robinson agrees with Aquinas’ idea that (Points : 1)

        Honor is a subjective quality
      
  Honor is secondary to integrity
      
  Honor must be displayed in action
      
  Honor is secondary to magnanimity
      
  None of the above

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