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• Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

• Paranoid Schizophrenia

After clicking a disorder, click the Diagnostic Overview tab in the left column. This will cover the major diagnostic features of the disorder. After that, click the DSM-5 Features tab. You can then go though the Case History, Interview, and Treatment sections on the website. Finally, in the Assessment section, you can complete an optional multiple-choice quiz. You have to write a case report for each case study. 

The format for the sample report is as follows:

Your Name

Instructor’s Name

Class/Section Number

Background

• Outline the major symptoms of this disorder.

• Briefly outline the client’s background (age, race, occupations, etc.).

• Describe any factors in the client’s background that might predispose him or her to this disorder.

Observations

• Describe any symptoms that you have observed that support the diagnosis. You can include direct quotes or behaviors that you may have observed.

• Describe any symptoms or behaviors that are inconsistent with the diagnosis.

• Provide any information that you have about the development of this disorder.

Diagnosis

• Did you observe any evidence of general medical conditions that might contribute to the development of this disorder?

• Did you observe any evidence of psychosocial and environmental problems that might contribute to this disorder?

• As per your observations, what is the client’s overall level of safety regarding potential harm to self or others (suicidality or homicidality)?

• What cross-cultural issues, if any, affect the differential diagnosis?

Therapeutic Intervention

• In your opinion, what are the appropriate short-term goals of this intervention?

• In your opinion, what are the appropriate long-term goals of this intervention?

• Which therapeutic strategy seems the most appropriate in this case? Why?

• Which therapeutic modality seems the most appropriate in this case? Why?

APA format 

Diagnostic overview

Schizophrenia is the most debilitating form of mental illness . This disorder which can come on quite suddenly distorts a person thoughts , perceptions and mood, and leaves them unable to meet the ordinary demands of life .

There is no single test to determine who suffers from schizophrenia. Instead the diagnoses is made when a person expresses a collection set of symptoms. The symptoms can be divided into three categories. One positive symptoms two negative symptoms and three social dysfunction.

One positive sentence

Positive symptoms include overt behaviors that are unusual and that interferes with the persons ability to interact in a daily life. The Two most common types of positive symptoms include delusional and hallucinations. It is essential to understand the difference between these two.

A delusion is a firmly held beliefs that is not grounded in real life. There are many types of delusions for example when a person vastly overestimate his or her importance we would say that he suffers from a delusion of grandeur. If a person believe that a group of people are conspiring to kill him we say he has a delusion of persecution there are many others . 

In contrast to Dilution a hallucination is perceptional error in which the person sees or hears something hey doesn’t exist.for example if a person sees a vision that no one else sees , we say that he is experiencing a visual hallucinations. If a person hears imaginary voice perhaps threading her we say hat she is suffering an auditory hallucination. 

About 70% of schizophrenics experience some type of hallucination and typically these hallucinations appropriate to a person culture and belief system. 

Another positive symptoms include a person expressing disturbance thinking and language. And these situations a person since this may be dramatically correct but their over all statements are in coherent and logical. To illustrate disturbance communications try to follow peters flow logic

Negative symptoms 

Many people with schizophrenic also expressed so called negative symptoms. Negative symptoms are characterized by the Abence of behaviors which are seen in normal individuals.

The most , common negative symptoms is an emotional flattering where the individual shows a little reaction to his surroundings.Pepole with negative symptoms will seldom speak express few spontaneous actions and fail to interact with other people.

Researchers have identify several subtypes of schizophrenic. 

When a person promote symptoms is bizarre motor behavior the person is saying to suffer from Catatonic schizophrenic.

When he prominent symptoms include delusion and hallucinations in which the person is being persecuted, they are said to suffer from paranoid schizophrenic. 

Finally when the symptoms are mixed or three is not a single prominent symptoms the person is said to suffer from undifferentiated schizophrenia. 

This module explore the case of who suffers from paranoid schizophrenic. Schizophrenic is a complex this order in research still doesn’t know it’s root causes. Current research supports the diathesis stress mold. 

According to this module genetic and biological factors predispose certain individuals towards expressing schizophrenia.

Interns environmental stress determines which individuals actually express the disorder we will look at both of these factors.

Biological causes 

an ambience of research indicate that genetic factors predispose certain individuals to express schizophrenia. In brief the more closely you are genetically related to someone who expresss schizophrenia the more likely you are to express this disorder yourself.

For example with unrelated person the chances are only 1% that you will share their diagnosis of schizophrenic.

If your siblings express schizophrenia then you have a 9% chance that you will express it as well . And if your identical twin expresses schizophrenia the chances are 50% that you will express it as well.

In light of this evidence for genetic involve me the next question is how do DNA alter our biological and thereby predispose some individuals to express schizophrenia?

One possibility has to do with brain size. Cortical atrophy theory suggest that an underlying pathology causes the deterioration of specific brain areas which in turn produces the schizophrenic symptoms. Researchers have no debt that people with schizophrenia have brains that are smaller than normal and have brains with enlarge ventricles.

DSM5

Look up criteria 

Look up demographics and details

What are treatment strategy

Case report

Your name 

Instructor’s name

Class/Section number

Diagnosis has been given to this client?

Background information

Please outline the major symptoms of this disorder.

Briefly outlined the clients back row age race occupation Excedrin

Please describe any fractions in the clients background that might predispose him or her to this this order.

Observation

Please describe any symptoms that you have observed which supports that diagnosis. You can include direct questions or any other Behaviors you may have observed.

Please describe any symptoms or observations that are inconsistent with the diagnosis.

Describe any information you observed about the development of this disorder.

Diagnosis

Did you observe any evidence of any Axis 3 issues (General medical conditions) that might contribute to this disorder?

Did you observe any evidence of an Axis 4 issue(psychosocial and environmental problems) that might contribute to this dis order ? 

Transcripts

Valerie white female she’s around late 30 . has been diagnosed with schizophrenic paranoid type in this section we will explore her background and her symptoms Valerie told me that her childhood was pretty normal she told me that she always felt like a social outcast but that she was good at her school work and she reminded remain close to her parents.

She went to college where she did pretty well she dated Lil and she married to her mid-20s afterwords she went on to grad school Valerie problem started when she was about 28 years old her mayor was unstable and about the same time she began experiencing delusional that people were plotting against her. Overtime these delusions grow more complex and disturbing and on limited she became highly agitated eventually her husband had her involuntary committed to a psychiatric ward.

In the interview Valerie describe the Terror she felt inside the asylum. she believes that she was being imprisoned and the doctors were performed experiments on her .the profound delusional state it Presented for many months.Eventually however the medication reduced Valeries psychotic symptoms and she was released from the hospital. Unfortunately the medications proceeded significant side effects and frequently Valerie won’t refuse to take them. Whenever she did so her symptoms work got worse and she’s each time she would be institutionalized. 

During her illness Valerie has expressed a range of delusions including 

delusions of Persecution- that people were plotting to hurt she and her family 

delusions of reference -the television programs were secretly referring to her and delusions of Grandeur-that her actions could help to save the world.

After more than eight years Valerie said she’s finally excepted her diagnosis and she have subsided. She has been able to hold a steady job and she lives with her parents. In the scheme of things Valerie has shown a remarkable recovery although she said she still considers herself mentally ill as long as she stays on her medication she is able to live a quiet normal life. Once had dreams of traveling and earning her PhD now she seemed content just to live day today going to work and returning to her home she also said that she has no particular interest in becoming involved in an intimate relationships.

When you interview Valerie I think you will see that that her conversation is liner and coherent . This is a largely true of people with paranoid schizophrenia even doing their active phase. At the same time I am not sure how it comes across on video but I found her to be somewhat emotional muted. to me it was as if a piece of her is missing 

I’m not sure if that this emotion is blotting is the result of the disorder or the medication. As you will see Valerie seems quite knowledgeable about her symptoms you should know however that she’s occasionally confuse the word Hallucination, delusional and illusion becareful to keep the definition of these words clear in your own mind. 

Questions interview 

Describe your life in the years before you got sick and where did you grow up in what did you study at school? 

Well, att was born in New York City and my parents taught church school for our religion domination and we moved a lot because when you’re into that type of work you go where you’re called to go. So I lived in upstate New York Iowa Colorado Washington state I don’t know and then I went to college.

I went to Walla Walla college in Walla Walla Washington I enjoyed the psychological classes. I particularly like the sociology classes because they going to do groups and the family is a group and I was looking at things going on in my family is group and I was looking add things going on in my family ,and that kind of interested me . And so I actually went through two or three years of college and I really didn’t know what I wanted to do major and except I like behavior science and finally I came up to the end of the third year and I had to make a decision and I have a lot more credits in that. Paragraph I wanted to teach and the university. I wanted to finish college and maybe get a doctorate I like the idea of well I like the idea of working with students and with the young people that had fresh ideas and I just thought that was going to be my career that was going to be my life.

Do you have happy memories of your childhood? 

Oh yeah when I was a kid we took a trip to Colorado which is one of the greatest things when my mother and father got interested in the mining history of Colorado and they get these books about these old mining towns in different legends and stories about the minors in the wild Wally times they had and we go visit these different cities where these different people had done things like we read about baby goat tabor ,and he tabor mine, the matchless and so we had to Gold and see all those sites. And we read about and we got to Rocky Mountain national Park and saw the beautiful mountains and it was real need vacation.

What events have you enjoyed in your life ? For instance , have you ever done any traveling? 

Yeah in 1971 I went And travel to England that was my first introduction to college right out of high school aesthetic English literature there we had nine weeks of classes and we go to the classes three days a week and the other four days we’d get on the bus tour and go over England and see the different places we studied about. Like for example weed study Shakespeare and then we take a trip up to Stratford to the point Avon and watch the Royal Shakespeare players though the plane and Weed study about Bobby Burns and then we go out to Scotland and see Bobby Burns cottage. It was very interesting trip I really enjoy it , it was a high point of my life. 

What did you do after college?

At the college I want to graduate school and I went to lomalinda university in Riverside California and the main reason I went there was because I got an assistant ship which pay half of my tuition. And at the time I was thinking in terms of teaching in a college or university. Because that’s basically about all I could do with sociology. And so I did my thesis on the study of alienation ministry wives. And I took a bunches of anthropology classes for my electives and I thoroughly enjoyed it . 

Can you describe a little bit about your marriage?

I met my husband when I was at Walla Walla my last two years there. He was an engineer and we got married after I went down to Lomalinda and he help pay off my graduate school bill which was very nice. he was very affectionate and playful and we made some agreements like we had agreed we were going to have children and that I told him I didn’t especially like the southern California and I didn’t want to live there all my life and we agree that after I finished graduate school we would move out. Course later on in the marriage we didn’t go along with those two things he decide he liked California and I wanted to stay there and didn’t want children the marriage went sour after that . 

Attention deficit hyperactivity 

To completion up treatments and DSM 5

And demographics and details 

Diagnostic overview 

Look up what kind of treatments can be done . 

During childhood we usually learn a variety of essential life lessons .we learn the basics such as how to read and write be we also learn how to control our impulses, focus our attention and interact with the people around us . For some children these lessons are quite typical. These children are impulsive their behavior seems disorganized and their attention leaves from one activity to the next. These children are often diagnosed as suffering from a tension deficit hypertension disorder also know as ADHD 

ADHD consists of three types of symptoms . The first type of symptoms and fall problems with attention. Children with ADHD seems to ignore details they are easily distracted and fails to complete task. The second set of involves hyperactive behavior. The children are restless and are unable to sit quietly. The third set of symptoms involves excessive impulsivity. These children constantly interrupt and are unable to wait their turn . 

ADHD has A variety of causes and provides a fascinating example for the interaction of biological culture and psychological factors. 

Let’s first exam and biological factors. There is some evidence that a ADHD may be heritable. Children with a ADHD often have parents usually fathers who also warrant the diagnosis. Furthermore the brain of a ADHD Children differs from that of other children especially in the areas of the brain that regulates attention. One hypothesis is that these areas mature more slowly in some children’s resulting in the expression of ADHD . 

Are fast paced the culture may also be a casual agent and may even account for the observed neurological differences. By way of analogy consider the human eye . At birth the eyeball seen here is cross-section is more or less round . however during development if a child is exposed toe tens I’ve close up work such as reading their eyeball will actually change its shape becoming more oblong . Intern this development a combination makes it easier for the individual to focus on nearby objects. The disadvantage to this accommodation of horse is that the reshape I will have more difficulty spoke didn’t sing oIntern intern this development a combination makes it easier for the individual to focus on nearby objects. The disadvantage to this accommodation of course is that the reshape eye will have more difficulty focusing on distant objects and the child may become near sighted.

To extend this metaphor when a child is exposed to a fast-paced world of Television Internet and video games areas of their brain may calibrate it’s attentional levels to accommodate to this rapid pace . This accommodation means that they are better able to cope with fast pace rapidly changing stimuli, but at the same time the child will have more difficulty focusing on stimuli that are less interesting or that require more sustained concentration. 

ths hypothesis that some cultures promote ADHD is supported by the fact that ADHD is much more prevalent in the United States then other countries around the world.

Finally other teachers her point out that individual children -rearing practice may be contributing to the increased of ADHA . Children with ADHD are more likely to come from single-parent families families with inexperience parents and families who spend comparatively little time interacting with the child. It is interesting to note that ADHD is diagnosed in boys three times more often than in girls . 

Look up DAM 5 features for ADHD

Case History 

At the time Dave’s was 16 years old and a high school south more. And my respects Davis seem like a lot of boys his age. He is energetic he loves girls sports video games and he is a bit rebellious. Underneath it all I sensed a kid with a really good heart.

All that said David is also incredibly hyperactive . At first I thought he was nervous about being on camera but even when the camera was off he was consistently moving and fidgeting frankly our entire crew said that they became nervous just being around him.

David said that he has been hyperactive for as long as he can remember it. In elementary school his teachers complained to his mother and he has been on and off of Wellbutrin and Ritalin. The segment was filmed during then summer however when his mother allows him to be medication free. 

The ADHD severely affects David’s life. he is unable to focus his attention for more than a few minutes and his hyperactive has resulted to him being ostracized by his peers. He says that he finds it nearly impossible to study explaining that the words just jump around the page. A number of his teachers seem to have given up on him. Dave it also has problems with expressing good judgment. Now some of this may be typical of a 16 year old American boy but with Dave in the situation seems even more acute. For example when we ask him to hit the punching bag he got very excited punching it to the point where he tore the skin off his knuckles.

David is aware that he is somewhat different than other kids his age and probably feels a little bit embarrassed about it. He believes that he is intelligent and he becomes flush straight it when he is unable to focus his attention. David loves playing sports and he is a very good competitor But he doesn’t have a lot of finesse. 

He seems disappointed that he is not a more talented athlete. He also loves playing video games in place for at least a couple hours every day.

Most of the time David lives with his mother and his home life is an important part of the story. I spoke with his mother and it’s clear that she loves her son very much. It is also clear that she is a bit overwhelmed. She is a single mom and has little quiet time with David. She often ask him to help around the house but he use the claims to forget his test. Now she allows him to spend his free time watching television or playing video games and she really did man’s much from him. For example when David was doing poorly in math rather than seeking additional tutoring she encouraged him to except the feeling great. I don’t want to give you the impression that I am blaming her for David’s condition. Not at all but it seemed to me that she was an important part of a system of reinforcement enables his unfocused behavior.

The medication have help David to focus and to some extent he has been doing better at school. David has mixed feelings about the medication however he says that the pills help him to focus and help him accomplish some of his mothers goals but at the same time he’s complaining that the pills make him hazy and non-social

Interview with daved 

What do you do you at school? 

Uh I play basi usually play video games that’s only well unsully towards the end of the well right when I get to the end of the well right when I get home I usually right when I get to the end of the well right when I get home I usually tight when the thing first thing I do ,I come in turn on the Video game and play it for a couple of hours.

And then I’ll call one of my friends I can’t usually I don’t go nowhere when I lived in town are used to I didn’t play video games much because I’d walk around and hang out with all my friends but now I live out of town in the country there’s not much very much for me to do so I usually pay video games unless I am outside working with my dad or I go with my girlfriend.

Does your attention deficit disorder interfere with your ability to go do chores around the house ? 

Most kids you know they get home and they do their chores or whatever. They clean the house you know because their mom they they just that their mom is going to tell them what right when you get home you’re supposed to clean the house or whatever and you know question and like I know that’s in my mind but when I get home I just don’t I don’t think about it I don’t do it until my mom says you need to do this or you need to do that and I be like OK and all then I’ll go do it.

And then like teachers for incident. They told me I need to do that or I need to do that I I didn’t do it. I won’t do it until they tell me because well I know but I just don’t really like no it doesn’t click until they tell me and then I can do it.

Can you think of a situation where your attention deficit disorder does not interfere with you ?

Tendo I can do Nintendo that my mom said I’m so good in the Nintendo because because I don’t know like little distractions you know ? how I make sh—well I make distractions when I’m like at school. And like I don’t can’t learn without em or something like that.Are i’ll make like little noise that you know like just all these crazy noises and talking to myself. I dream-day a lot. 

But in video games or you know just PlayStation or Nintendo or whatever you playing that has its own distractions. And I could pay attention to every single little thing that on the TV. I mean if you —— this one kid plays the Nintendo, I mean he walking around he’ll get lost in all the mazes or whatever? I know exactly where I am I just remember where are the turns are and just where—I just remember it I don’t know why,I just remember everything in the whole game . 

Case report

Your name 

Instructor’s name

Class/Section number

Diagnosis has been given to this client?

Background information

Please outline the major symptoms of this disorder.

Briefly outlined the clients back row age race occupation Excedrin

Please describe any fractions in the clients background that might predispose him or her to this this order.

Observation

Please describe any symptoms that you have observed which supports that diagnosis. You can include direct questions or any other Behaviors you may have observed.

Please describe any symptoms or observations that are inconsistent with the diagnosis.

Describe any information you observed about the development of this disorder.

Diagnosis

Did you observe any evidence of any Axis 3 issues (General medical conditions) that might contribute to this disorder?

Did you observe any evidence of an Axis 4 issue(psychosocial and environmental problems) that might contribute to this dis order ? 

Based on your observation what is the clients overall functioning Axis5 ? 1-100 scal we are higher numbers indicate higher functioning.

Therapeutic intervention

In your opinion what are the appropriate short term goals for this intervention? 

In your opinion what are the appropriate long term goals for this intervention? 

Which therapeutic strategies seems most appropriate in this case? Why? 

Which therapeutic Modality seems most appropriate in this case? Why?

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